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Navy announces first Black female Tactical Aircraft pilot

The U.S. Navy announced its first Black female Tactical Aircraft pilot Thursday.

“BZ to Lt. j.g. Madeline Swegle on completing the Tactical Air (Strike) aviator syllabus,” the Naval Air Training Command tweeted, using an abbreviation for the “Bravo Zulu,” meaning “well done.”

Student Naval Aviator Lt. j.g. Madeline Swegle, assigned to the Redhawks of Training Squadron (VT) 21 at Naval Air Station Kingsville, Texas, exits a T-45C Goshawk training aircraft following her final flight to complete the undergraduate Tactical Air (Strike) pilot training syllabus, July 7, 2020. (U.S. Navy photo by Anne Owens/Released)

Student Naval Aviator Lt. j.g. Madeline Swegle, assigned to the Redhawks of Training Squadron (VT) 21 at Naval Air Station Kingsville, Texas, exits a T-45C Goshawk training aircraft following her final flight to complete the undergraduate Tactical Air (Strike) pilot training syllabus, July 7, 2020. (U.S. Navy photo by Anne Owens/Released)
(U.S. Navy)

The Navy’s tweet also included a pair of images of the history-making pilot standing alongside a T-45C Goshawk training jet on Tuesday.

“Swegle is the @USNavy’s first known Black female TACAIR pilot and will receive her Wings of Gold later this month,” the announcement continued.

According the Navy, the ceremony will be held July 31.

Student Naval Aviator Lt. j.g. Madeline Swegle stands alongside a T-45C Goshawk training aircraft following her final flight to complete the undergraduate Tactical Air (Strike) pilot training syllabus, July 7, 2020 (U.S. Navy photo by Lt.j.g. Luke Redito/Released)

Student Naval Aviator Lt. j.g. Madeline Swegle stands alongside a T-45C Goshawk training aircraft following her final flight to complete the undergraduate Tactical Air (Strike) pilot training syllabus, July 7, 2020 (U.S. Navy photo by Lt.j.g. Luke Redito/Released)
(U.S. Navy)

Swegle is a Virginia native who graduated the U.S. Naval Academy in 2017, Stars and Stripes reported.

She is assigned to the Redhawks of Training Squadron 21 based out of Naval Air Station Kingsville in Texas.

Rear Adm. Paula Dunn, the Navy’s Vice Chief of Information, congratulated the pilot in a tweet of her own.

“Very proud of LTJG Swegle,” she wrote. “Go forth and kick butt.”

Graduates of the TACAIR program typically go on to fly F/A-18E/F Super Hornets, EA-18G Growlers or F-35C Joint Strike Fighters, according to Stars and Stripes.

ALL-MALE GREEN BERETS WELCOME FIRST FEMALE SOLDIER

Swegle follows a path forged by Rosemary Mariner, who became the Navy’s first female tactical pilot in 1974.

Mariner went on to become the first woman to command a naval aviation squadron. The daughter of an Air Force pilot and a Navy nurse, she served from 1973 until 1997. She died in January 2019 after a long battle with ovarian cancer.

ROSEMARY MARINER, FIRST WOMAN TO FLY TACTICAL FIGHTER JET FOR NAVY, DEAD AT 65

Another notable female pilot is Arizona Sen. Martha McSally – a retired Air Force colonel who was the first female fighter pilot to not only fly in combat, but also to command a fighter squadron in combat in U.S. history.

And Air Force Capt. Emily Thompson became the first female to fly the new F-35A Lightning II into combat last month.

U.S. Air Force Capt. Emily Thompson, 421st Expeditionary Fighter Squadron pilot, dons flight equipment at the Aircrew Flight Equipment shop on Al Dhafra Air Base, United Arab Emirates, June 5, 2020. Thompson is the first female to fly an F-35A Lightning II into combat. She is currently deployed from Hill Air Force Base, Utah. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Kat Justen)

U.S. Air Force Capt. Emily Thompson, 421st Expeditionary Fighter Squadron pilot, dons flight equipment at the Aircrew Flight Equipment shop on Al Dhafra Air Base, United Arab Emirates, June 5, 2020. Thompson is the first female to fly an F-35A Lightning II into combat. She is currently deployed from Hill Air Force Base, Utah. (U.S. Air Force photo by Tech. Sgt. Kat Justen)

But Swegle’s accomplishment in the Navy also comes as the armed forces are attempting to tackle a number of racially charged issues.

Two years ago, two Black male aviators claimed they were removed from the Navy’s Tactical Aircraft training program due to their race. Investigators later said they had been mistreated but that their removal was not improper, according to The Drive.

Congress and the Department of Defense are looking into possibly removing the names of Confederate leaders from military facilities.

The Marine Corps banned Confederate symbols in its facilities earlier this year, and the Navy has announced plans to do something similar.

And the Army is investigating after handouts were distributed at a base in Alabama that painted President Trump’s “Make America Great Again” slogan as a form of “covert” White supremacy.

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Fox News’ Kathleen Joyce and Adam Shaw contributed to this report.

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For The First Time, Scientists Find a Way to Make Targeted Edits to Mitochondrial DNA

(wir0man/iStock/Getty Pictures )

Most cells in your body come with two genetic libraries; 1 at the nucleus, and the other interior constructions called mitochondria – also called the’powerhouses of the cell’.

Until now, we’ve just had a way to make adjustments to one.

A joint effort by many research teams in the US has caused a process that could one day allow us to modify the instructions making up the mobile’s’other’ genome, and potentially treat a range of conditions that affect how we power our bodies.

The molecular foundation of this radical gene editing instrument is a toxin called DddA, directed by the bacterium Burkholderia cenocepacia to sabotage different microbes when competition over resources turns severe.

Researchers in the University of Washington have had an interest in the poison’s abilities for some time, finding it converts a nucleic acid foundation called cytosine to a different one commonly found in RNA, known as uracil.

It is far from the first time scientists have appeared to fungal weapons for hints on how best to tweak DNA in this manner. In reality, a household of so-called deaminase enzymes had been put to use in engineering.

Regrettably deaminase enzymes have a tendency to just perform that their code-swapping trick on single strands of DNA.

To circumvent this, another research team in the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard combined their code-swapping deaminase with CRISPR technology, which involves using an RNA template to identify the arrangement and then utilizing enzymes to unzip the strands and create adjustments.

That is not too much of a problem when you would like to make edits to dual strands of DNA within something as welcoming as a cell’s nucleus. But smuggling that the RNA templates is not quite so straightforward.

That’s because over a billion years past, mitochondria were organisms in their own right, and over time they evolved to discuss responsibilities with the cells they now occupy, being delegated the business of breaking down glucose for electricity.

While many mitochondrial genes have since been filed away from the host’s nucleus, these very small power units have held onto several important sequences, which can be tightly locked away behind a veil of membranes which don’t take kindly to roam bits of RNA wafting through.

Fortunately, DddA had a exceptional talent for making modifications to both DNA strands, opening the way to ditching CRISPR — and its bulky RNA template — in favour of alternative procedures for targeting the sequence that you want to modify.

That next piece of the puzzle came in the kind of an old school genetic engineering instrument known as a transcription activator-like effector, or TALE.

This class of enzyme may be tailored to discover specific nucleic acid codes and then break them apart. Just the thing for guiding a poison that is cytosine-swapping into place.

Teamed up with DddA, a specially crafted TALE receptor may find a target sequence inside mitochondria and flip any cytosine it finds into a uracil, which will later change into a similar DNA-specific base called thymine.

In testing, this change happened roughly half of the time.

A fifty-fifty change might not seem like a huge win, but given there weren’t any symptoms of potentially disastrous changes outside target sequences, it makes for a promising precision technology tool.

What’s more, given there is no other contenders for editing mitochondrial genes, it’s a landmark accomplishment with this achievement rate.

Just as mutations in nuclear DNA can contribute to a vast array of health conditions, mutations in the mitochondria’s genes may also be problematic, impacting anything in brain development to muscle growth, energy levels, metabolism, and immunity.

Usually (though not always) passed through the eggs down from moms, mitochondria and any harmful mutations may be inherited through the generations. ) Right now the best we might be able to do is unite cells from two different mothers to get rid of affected mitochondria. 

But with this brand new DddA technologies, we may eventually have the ability to create animal models that mimic a variety of debilitating mitochondrial ailments in humans. And 1 day mend them.

This research was printed in Character .

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First Direct Evidence of Gulf Stream “Blender Effect” – New Mechanism of Ocean Mixing

Triaxus Towing Platform

The “Triaxus” towing platform breaks through the choppy surface of the ocean during a storm. By towing such a platform with monitoring instruments through the water, changing its depth in a ‘yo-yo’ pattern as it traveled, scientists created high-resolution snapshots of how a dye released upstream evolved across the Gulf Stream front. Credit: Craig M. Lee, UW APL

University of Maryland researcher discovers important ocean blender effect that may influence climate and fisheries from Florida to Newfoundland.

New research provides the first direct evidence for the Gulf Stream blender effect, identifying a new mechanism of mixing water across the swift-moving current. The results have important implications for weather, climate and fisheries because ocean mixing plays a critical role in these processes. The Gulf Stream is one of the largest drivers of climate and biological productivity from Florida to Newfoundland and along the western coast of Europe.

Float Release

A research crew deployed a float from the R/V Knorr before releasing a fluorescent dye into the water. Scientists then tracked the drift of both dye and float through the Gulf Stream revealing significant mixing of waters across the swift current. Credit: Craig M. Lee, UW APL

The multi-institutional study led by a University of Maryland researcher revealed that churning along the edges of the Gulf Stream across areas as small as a kilometer could be a leading source of ocean mixing between the waters on either side of the current. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on July 6, 2020.

“This long-standing debate about whether the Gulf Stream acts as a blender or a barrier to ocean mixing has mainly considered big ocean eddies, tens of kilometers to a hundred kilometers across,” said Jacob Wenegrat, an assistant professor in UMD’s Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and the lead author of the study. “What we’re adding to this debate is this new evidence that variability at the kilometer scale seems to be doing a lot of mixing. And those scales are really hard to monitor and model.”

As the Gulf Stream courses its way up the east coast of the U.S. and Canada, it brings warm salty water from the tropics into the North Atlantic. But the current also creates an invisible wall of water that divides two distinct ocean regions: the colder, fresher waters along the northern edge of the Gulf Stream that swirl in a counterclockwise direction, and the warmer, saltier waters on the southern edge of the current that circulate in a clockwise direction.

How much ocean mixing occurs across the Gulf Stream has been a matter of scientific debate. As a result, ocean models that predict climate, weather, and biological productivity have not fully accounted for the contribution of mixing between the two very different types of water on either side of the current.

To conduct the study, the researchers had to take their instruments to the source: the edge of the Gulf Stream. Two teams of scientists aboard two global-class research vessels braved winter storms on the Atlantic Ocean to release a fluorescent dye along the northern front of the Gulf Stream and trace its path over the following days.

The first team released the dye along with a float containing an acoustic beacon. Downstream, the second team tracked the float and monitored the concentration of dye along with water temperature, salinity, chemistry and other features.

Back on shore, Wenegrat and his coauthors developed high-resolution simulations of the physical processes that could cause the dye to disperse through the water in the manner the field teams recorded. Their results showed that turbulence across areas as small as a kilometer exerted an important influence on the dye’s path and resulted in significant mixing of water properties such as salinity and temperature.

“These results emphasize the role of variability at very small scales that are currently hard to observe using standard methods, such as satellite observations,” Wenegrat said. “Variability at this scale is not currently resolved in global climate models and won’t be for decades to come, so it leads us to wonder, what have we been missing?”

By showing that small-scale mixing across the Gulf Stream may have a significant impact, the new study reveals an important, under-recognized contributor to ocean circulation, biology, and potentially climate.

For example, the Gulf Stream plays an important role in what’s known as the ocean biological pump—a system that traps excess carbon dioxide, buffering the planet from global warming. In the surface waters of the Gulf Stream region, ocean mixing influences the growth of phytoplankton—the base of the ocean food web. These phytoplankton absorb carbon dioxide near the surface and later sink to the bottom, taking carbon with them and trapping it in the deep ocean. Current models of the ocean biological pump don’t account for the large effect small-scale mixing across the Gulf Stream could have on phytoplankton growth.

“To make progress on this we need to find ways to quantify these processes on a finer scale using theory, state-of-the-art numerical models and new observational techniques,” Wenegrat said. “We need to be able to understand their impact on large-scale circulation and biogeochemistry of the ocean.”

###

Reference: “Enhanced mixing across the gyre boundary at the Gulf Stream front” by Jacob O. Wenegrat, Leif N. Thomas, Miles A. Sundermeyer, John R. Taylor, Eric A. D’Asaro, Jody M. Klymak, R. Kipp Shearman and Craig M. Lee, 6 July 2020, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2005558117

The field research was conducted from the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System vessels R/V Knorr and R/V Atlantis and was supported by the Scalable Lateral Mixing and Coherent Turbulence Departmental Research Initiative of the Office of Naval Research. The content of this article does not necessarily reflect the views of these organizations.

In addition to Wenegrat, co-authors of the study included researchers from Stanford University, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, University of Cambridge, University of Washington, University of Victoria and Oregon State University.

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Scientists find first direct proof of sea mixing across the Gulf Stream

Researchers have discovered the first direct evidence of the so-called Gulf Stream”blender influence,” where the oceans mix on either side of the present.

The University of Maryland headed the study, which is printed in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current from the Western North Atlantic.  “As the Gulf Stream courses its way up the east coast of the U.S. and Canada, it brings warm salty water from the tropics to the north Atlantic,” the researchers describe in a announcement . “But the current also generates an invisible wall of water that divides two different ocean regions: the colder, fresher waters across the northern edge of the Gulf Stream which swirl in a counterclockwise direction, and the warmer, saltier waters in the southern edge of the current that circulate in a clockwise direction.”

‘BOILING’ SEA DISCOVERED IN SIBERIA, STUNNING SCIENTISTS

Churning across the edges of the Gulf Stream across areas as little as a kilometer (0. 62 miles) can be a leading source of sea mixing between the waters, according to the pros.

Fluorescent dye was used to track the evolution and mixing of water across the Gulf Stream. Here fluorescein dye was released along the north wall of the Gulf Stream, and tracked by ship as it mixed horizontally across the current.

Fluorescent dye has been used to track mixing and the development of water. Here fluorescein dye was discharged across the north wall of the Gulf Stream, and tracked by boat as it mixed across the present.
(Lance Wills, WHOI)

Scientists released fluorescent dye from a buoy and a towing platform which plowed through the sea to analyze the churning waters.

“This longstanding debate about if the Gulf Stream acts as a blender or a barrier to sea mixing has mainly considered big ocean eddies, tens of km into a hundred kilometers across,” said Jacob Wenegrat, an assistant professor in UMD’s Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and also the lead author of the study, in the statement. “What we’re adding to this argument is this new proof that variability at the kilometer scale appears to be doing a great deal of mixing. And these scales are really difficult to track and model.”

STUNNING VOLCANIC’LOST WORLD’ DISCOVERED DEEP IN THE OCEAN

Scientists say their research has implications for ocean circulation, biology and climate. “The Gulf Stream has a significant part in what’s known as the sea biological pump–a system that traps surplus carbon dioxide, buffering the planet from global warming,” they explained, in the announcement. “At the surface waters of the Gulf Stream area, sea mixing influences the increase of phytoplankton–the foundation of the ocean food web. These phytoplankton absorb carbon dioxide near the surface and later sink to the ground, taking carbon together and trapping it in the deep ocean.”

The

The”Triaxus” towing platform contained monitoring instruments. By altering its thickness in a’yo-yo’ pattern as it traveled, scientists created of how a dye released evolved over the Gulf Stream 30, snapshots.
(Craig M. Lee, UW APL)

“Present models of the sea biological pump do not account for the massive effect small mixing round the Gulf Stream may have on phytoplankton growth,” they added.

Pros from Stanford University, the University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth, the University of Cambridge, the University of Washingtonat the University of Victoria and also Oregon State University also contributed to the research.

STRANGE NEW SPECIES DISCOVERED IN PACIFIC OCEAN’ABYSS’

Scientists continue to shed fresh light on Earth’s seas and oceans. Last year, for example, scientists in Russia found a peculiar”boiling” sea from the waters of the Eastern Arctic. “An unusually powerful methane emission,” caused the occurrence, based on a translated statement released by Russia’s Tomsk Polytechnic University.

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In another endeavor in 2018, a stunning volcanic”lost world” was discovered from the coast of Tasmania.

Follow James Rogers on Twitter @jamesjrogers

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The UAE’s First Mars Mission Is a Robo-Meteorologist

Sarah bint Yousif Al-Amiri knows what it’s like to build a spacecraft, but she’s never launched one to Mars—or during a global pandemic. As the deputy project manager for the United Arab Emirates’ first interplanetary mission—and the country’s minister of state for advanced sciences—the 33-year-old engineer has spent the past few years bouncing between Dubai and Boulder, Colorado, where a team of Emirati scientists have been busy building a robotic satellite meteorologist called Hope. These days, Al-Amiri is quarantining near the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan, where Hope is expected to depart on a seven-month journey to the Red Planet next week.

Hope is a boxy satellite the size of a small car that will use three main instruments—an imager and two gas spectrometers—to study the Martian atmosphere. Its altitude above the planet will range from 12,000 to 25,000 miles above the surface, due to its elliptical orbit, which will take 55 hours to complete. The data collected by Hope will help scientists understand how conditions observed on the surface by rovers like Opportunity interact with the atmosphere and affect the Martian climate.

But for the past two months, Al-Amiri’s been focused on more mundane concerns, like making sure her team could get exemptions to fly into Japan to prepare the spacecraft, which will launch on a rocket made by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. At the same time, she’s been pulling together last-minute pandemic contingency plans to ensure that the craft could still launch even with a skeleton crew. Mars only makes a close approach to Earth every two years, and if the team doesn’t hit the six-week launch window this year, they’ll have to wait until late 2022 to try again.

“It was a nightmare trying to align people’s schedules and get everyone here safely,” Al-Amiri says. “Thankfully, the most critical tests were done before the pandemic started, because two days after the team flew in, Japan imposed a two-week quarantine.”

Hope arrived in Japan in late April, and engineers began integrating the satellite with the rocket fairing a few days ago. But testing on the spacecraft continues apace. The UAE’s first jaunt into deep space is an important mission for the country both symbolically and technically, and it’s up to Al-Amiri and her colleagues to make sure everything goes perfectly.

The UAE may be small—it’s about the size of South Carolina—but it’s oil-rich. About a decade ago, its government started pouring its national wealth into fostering science and engineering talent. The country’s promotional materials call this a transition to a “knowledge economy” and frame it as a way to reduce the Emirates’ reliance on oil and natural gas exports. But Al-Amiri simply sees it as an investment in the future—and for the UAE, the future is in space. “We’re looking at the long-term exploration of Mars,” Al-Amiri says.

The UAE became an independent country in 1971 and only founded its national space agency in 2014, but the government has already funneled more than $6 billion toward extraterrestrial ambitions. And that investment is starting to pay dividends. Last year, the Emirati space agency sent its first astronaut, Hazzaa Al Mansoori, for an eight-day trip to the International Space Station, and it has several more astronauts in training. Agency officials are also building a simulated Mars colony in the desert in a nod to their plan to one day put boot prints on Martian soil. But the crown jewel of the space program is the Hope Mars mission, which is as much about showing that the UAE can hold its own among the space superpowers as it is about science.

“When the UAE was created, some countries were already sending things to space,” says Omran Sharaf, the program manager for the Hope mission. “To catch up requires us to be much faster than other nations. The moon is difficult, but Mars is much more difficult. And if a young nation like the UAE can reach Mars, then it shows you can do much more.”

If everything goes according to plan, the UAE will become just the fifth country to successfully put a spacecraft on or around Mars. But the Hope mission will also be marked by a number of firsts. It’s the first interplanetary mission launched by a majority Arab country, it will be the first time a Japanese rocket has launched a spacecraft to Mars, and if all goes well, Hope will be the first spacecraft to get a comprehensive understanding of the tenuous Martian atmosphere. Planetary scientists believe that Mars was once sheathed in a thick layer of carbon dioxide, but that this atmosphere was rapidly stripped away by solar winds in the early days of the solar system. Once Hope arrives in orbit next February, it will track seasonal atmospheric changes over the course of a full Martian year, which is the equivalent of two Earth years, and give researchers better insight into this process.

Hope will help fill in the gaps in understanding left by NASA’s Maven orbiter, which has been studying the Red Planet’s atmosphere since 2014. Maven was built to observe the dynamics of the upper atmosphere, says Bruce Jakosky, a planetary scientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and Maven’s lead researcher, but its instruments weren’t designed to get a good look at what was happening closer to the surface. Hope is outfitted with three instruments that will allow it to study the lower Martian atmosphere at different wavelengths to understand how it interacts with the upper atmosphere and the rest of the planet to create seasonal weather patterns.

“Maven couldn’t do everything,” says Jakosky, who was a scientific adviser for the Hope mission. “In designing the Hope mission, we wanted to pick areas that were important, yet not really addressed by earlier missions. And our experience with Mars is that every time you make a new type of measurement, you make fundamental discoveries about the behavior of the system.”

For example, Hope will shed light on a Martian mystery uncovered by Maven, which detected large plumes of hydrogen escaping from the planet. The hydrogen likely comes from atmospheric water vapor split apart by sunlight in the lower atmosphere, but the processes that cause it to escape into space aren’t well understood. They’re worth figuring out, though. Geological evidence collected by Martian orbiters and rovers suggests that a younger Mars may have hosted vast oceans of liquid water on its surface around 4 billion years ago. But today the planet is cold, dry, and barren. Studying its atmosphere may tell us how it became this way, and whether conditions were ever conducive to life.

“We know that Mars used to have a much thicker atmosphere, it was warmer, and it was wetter,” says Tanya Harrison, the science programs manager at Planet, an Earth-imaging satellite company, who previously worked on NASA’s Curiosity Mars rover. “The big questions are, how did the atmosphere get to the point it’s at today, and what’s causing it to blow into space?”

The Hope spacecraft may be on a mission to Mars, but its architects also underscore its importance for people back on Earth. The Emiratis and their neighbors are expected to be hit especially hard by climate change; some projections forecast that large swathes of the Middle East will be uninhabitable by the middle of the century due to drought and soaring temperatures. Sharaf says that the skills gained from launching and operating Hope will help Emirati scientists and engineers develop the technical skills they need to deal with climate change on Earth.

“We are in a rough region and have serious challenges here when it comes to water resources and food resources,” says Sharaf. “We need scientists and engineers to address these challenges. That’s why we’re sending this mission to Mars—it’s about the post-oil economy and developing the skills and knowledge that will, sooner or later, come back to Earth. ”

The development of Hope was a uniquely collaborative process, says Al-Amiri. Although the spacecraft is entirely funded and designed by the UAE, its instruments were built in the United States at various universities and the spacecraft was assembled at the University of Colorado, Boulder. But UAE leaders weren’t interested in simply renting US experts as contractors for their spacecraft; they wanted their engineers to be intimately involved and learn from the process. So Sharaf led a team of several Emirati engineers who moved to Colorado to work side-by-side with American scientists.

This is a collaborative model familiar to Al-Amiri and her Emirati colleagues who partnered with South Korea to develop the UAE’s first Earth-observation satellites years ago. But it’s a relatively unique approach among national space programs, which have historically developed spacefaring expertise internally. Al-Amiri says this wasn’t an option for the Mars team, since UAE prime minister Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum wanted the spacecraft’s arrival at Mars to coincide with the country’s 50th anniversary next year. “We knew very early on that we only had a short amount of time,” says Al-Amiri.

Still, going from a Mars mission concept to launch in just six years is a huge ask, and Al-Amiri says it speaks to the talents of the Emirati engineers working on the project, the majority of whom are under age 35. “It’s a relatively young team, but the UAE is a relatively young country, so it’s not odd for us,” says Al-Amiri, who pointed out that most NASA engineers, astronaut candidates, and mission control operators were also in their late twenties and early thirties during the Apollo program. “Having a young team didn’t hinder the process. It was a great learning opportunity, which was the overall objective of this mission.”

The Hope mission will kick off a busy month of Mars launches by space agencies that want to take advantage of the planet’s closest approach to Earth in more than 2 years. Next up is China, which is expected to launch its first dedicated Mars mission, Tianwen-1, between July 20 and 25. This mission will incorporate both a rover and an orbiter that will scout for signs of life in the Martian soil.

Finally, NASA will launch its next-generation Mars rover, Perseverance, on a mission to collect samples that will be returned to Earth later this decade. NASA’s mission is currently scheduled to launch on July 30, but it has been delayed multiple times due to problems discovered during vehicle checkout. The agency has until August 15 to launch, otherwise it will have to wait another two years for Mars to make another close pass. And with any luck, Hope will be there to greet the rover when it arrives.


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First direct evidence of Sea mixing across the Gulf Stream

First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the gulf stream
The”Triaxus” towing system breaks through the choppy surface of the ocean in a storm. By towing a platform changing its depth in a’yo-yo’ blueprint as it traveled, scientists generated of a dye published evolved across the Gulf Stream 41, snapshots. Credit: Craig M. Lee, UW APL

New research provides the first direct proof for the Gulf Stream blender impact, identifying a new mechanism of mixing water throughout the swift-moving current. Because ocean mixing plays a role in these processes the results have implications for fisheries, climate and weather. The Gulf Stream is one of the drivers of climate and biological growth in Florida to Newfoundland and along the shore of Europe.

The multi-institutional study led by a University of Maryland researcher revealed that churning along the edges of the Gulf Stream across regions as small as a kilometer could be a leading source of mixing involving the waters on both sides of the current. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on July 6, 2020.

“This long-standing debate about whether the Gulf Stream functions as a blender or a barrier to sea mixing has largely considered big ocean eddies, tens of kilometers to some hundred km across,” said Jacob Wenegrat, an assistant professor in UMD’s Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science and also the lead author of this analysis. “What we are adding to the argument is that this new proof that variability at the kilometer scale seems to be doing a lot of mixing. And those scales are really difficult to monitor and version.”

Since the Gulf Stream classes its way up the east coast of the U.S. and Canada, it attracts hot salty from the tropics to the north Atlantic. But the present also generates an invisible walls of water that divides two distinct ocean regions: the colder, fresher waters across the northern border of the Gulf Stream which swirl in a counterclockwise direction, along with the warmer, saltier waters in the southern edge of the present that circulate in a clockwise direction.

First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the gulf stream
Before discharging a fluorescent dye A research crew deployed a float in the R/V Knorr. Scientists then tracked the ramble of the two dye and float throughout the Gulf Stream revealing significant mixing of waters round the swift current. Charge: Craig M. Lee, UW APL

Just how much ocean mixing happens across the Gulf Stream is a topic of scientific discussion. As a result have not fully accounted for the contribution of blending on each side of the current.

To conduct the study, the researchers had to take their tools to the source: the border of the Gulf Stream. Two teams of scientists aboard two global-class research vessels braved winter storms on the Atlantic Ocean to release a along the northern front of the Gulf Stream and track its path over the subsequent days.

The first team released the dye alongside a float comprising an acoustic beacon. Downstream, the next team monitored the float and monitored the concentration of dye combined with , salinity, chemistry and other capabilities.

Back on shore, Wenegrat and his coauthors developed high-resolution simulations of these physiological processes that may result in the dye to spread throughout the water in the manner the area teams recorded. Their results showed that turbulence across regions as a kilometer exerted an important influence on the path of the dye and resulted in mixing of water properties like temperature and salinity.

First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the gulf stream
A way to monitor mixing and the development of water is provided by fluorescent dye. In a recent analysis fluorescein dye (as pictured here) was released along the north wall of the Gulf Stream, and tracked by ship as it blended horizontally across the current. Credit: WHOI, Lance Wills

“These results emphasize the use of variability at tiny scales that are presently hard to observe using standard procedures, such as satellite observations,” Wenegrat said. “Variability at this scale is not currently resolved in global climate models and won’t be for decades to come, so it leads us to wonder, what have we been missing?”

By showing that modest mixing round the Gulf Stream may have a significant effect, the new study shows an important, under-recognized contributor to sea circulation, biology and potentially climate.

For example, the Gulf Stream has a significant part in what is called the sea biological pump–a method that traps surplus carbon dioxide, buffering the planet from global warming. In the Gulf Stream region’s surface waters, ocean mixing influences the increase of phytoplankton–the foundation of the ocean food web. All these phytoplankton sink taking carbon with them trapping it and absorb carbon dioxide around the surface. Current versions of the sea biological pump don’t account for the large effect small mixing across the Gulf Stream could have on phytoplankton growth.

“To make progress with this we need to find methods to quantify these processes on a finer scale using theory, innovative numerical versions and new observational methods,” Wenegrat said. “We need to be able to comprehend their impact on large-scale flow and biogeochemistry of the sea.”

The research paper,”Increased mixing across the gyre boundary at the Gulf Stream front,” Jacob O. Wenegrat, Leif N. Thomas, Miles A. Sundermeyer, John R. Taylor, Eric A. D’Asaro, Jody M. Klymak, R. Kipp Shearman, and Craig M. Lee, has been printed in the July 6, 2020 dilemma of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.



More information:
Jacob O. Wenegrat el al.,”Increased mixing round the gyre boundary at the Gulf Stream front,” PNAS (2020). www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10. 1073/pnas. 2005558117

Citation:
First direct evidence of ocean mixing across the Gulf Stream (2020, July 6)
Retrieved 6 July 2020
From https://phys.org/news/2020-07-evidence-ocean-gulf-stream. html

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The UAE’s First Mars Mission Is a Robo-Meteorologist

Sarah bint Yousif Al-Amiri knows what it’s like to build a spacecraft, but she’s never launched one to Mars—or during a global pandemic. As the deputy project manager for the United Arab Emirates’ first interplanetary mission—and the country’s minister of state for advanced sciences—the 33-year-old engineer has spent the past few years bouncing between Dubai and Boulder, Colorado, where a team of Emirati scientists have been busy building a robotic satellite meteorologist called Hope. These days, Al-Amiri is quarantining near the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan, where Hope is expected to depart on a seven-month journey to the Red Planet next week.

Hope is a boxy satellite the size of a small car that will use three main instruments—an imager and two gas spectrometers—to study the Martian atmosphere. Its altitude above the planet will range from 12,000 to 25,000 miles above the surface, due to its elliptical orbit, which will take 55 hours to complete. The data collected by Hope will help scientists understand how conditions observed on the surface by rovers like Opportunity interact with the atmosphere and affect the Martian climate.

But for the past two months, Al-Amiri’s been focused on more mundane concerns, like making sure her team could get exemptions to fly into Japan to prepare the spacecraft, which will launch on a rocket made by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. At the same time, she’s been pulling together last-minute pandemic contingency plans to ensure that the craft could still launch even with a skeleton crew. Mars only makes a close approach to Earth every two years, and if the team doesn’t hit the six-week launch window this year, they’ll have to wait until late 2022 to try again.

“It was a nightmare trying to align people’s schedules and get everyone here safely,” Al-Amiri says. “Thankfully, the most critical tests were done before the pandemic started, because two days after the team flew in, Japan imposed a two-week quarantine.”

Hope arrived in Japan in late April, and engineers began integrating the satellite with the rocket fairing a few days ago. But testing on the spacecraft continues apace. The UAE’s first jaunt into deep space is an important mission for the country both symbolically and technically, and it’s up to Al-Amiri and her colleagues to make sure everything goes perfectly.

The UAE may be small—it’s about the size of South Carolina—but it’s oil-rich. About a decade ago, its government started pouring its national wealth into fostering science and engineering talent. The country’s promotional materials call this a transition to a “knowledge economy” and frame it as a way to reduce the Emirates’ reliance on oil and natural gas exports. But Al-Amiri simply sees it as an investment in the future—and for the UAE, the future is in space. “We’re looking at the long-term exploration of Mars,” Al-Amiri says.

The UAE became an independent country in 1971 and only founded its national space agency in 2014, but the government has already funneled more than $6 billion toward extraterrestrial ambitions. And that investment is starting to pay dividends. Last year, the Emirati space agency sent its first astronaut, Hazzaa Al Mansoori, for an eight-day trip to the International Space Station, and it has several more astronauts in training. Agency officials are also building a simulated Mars colony in the desert in a nod to their plan to one day put boot prints on Martian soil. But the crown jewel of the space program is the Hope Mars mission, which is as much about showing that the UAE can hold its own among the space superpowers as it is about science.

“When the UAE was created, some countries were already sending things to space,” says Omran Sharaf, the program manager for the Hope mission. “To catch up requires us to be much faster than other nations. The moon is difficult, but Mars is much more difficult. And if a young nation like the UAE can reach Mars, then it shows you can do much more.”

If everything goes according to plan, the UAE will become just the fifth country to successfully put a spacecraft on or around Mars. But the Hope mission will also be marked by a number of firsts. It’s the first interplanetary mission launched by a majority Arab country, it will be the first time a Japanese rocket has launched a spacecraft to Mars, and if all goes well, Hope will be the first spacecraft to get a comprehensive understanding of the tenuous Martian atmosphere. Planetary scientists believe that Mars was once sheathed in a thick layer of carbon dioxide, but that this atmosphere was rapidly stripped away by solar winds in the early days of the solar system. Once Hope arrives in orbit next February, it will track seasonal atmospheric changes over the course of a full Martian year, which is the equivalent of two Earth years, and give researchers better insight into this process.

Hope will help fill in the gaps in understanding left by NASA’s Maven orbiter, which has been studying the Red Planet’s atmosphere since 2014. Maven was built to observe the dynamics of the upper atmosphere, says Bruce Jakosky, a planetary scientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, and Maven’s lead researcher, but its instruments weren’t designed to get a good look at what was happening closer to the surface. Hope is outfitted with three instruments that will allow it to study the lower Martian atmosphere at different wavelengths to understand how it interacts with the upper atmosphere and the rest of the planet to create seasonal weather patterns.

“Maven couldn’t do everything,” says Jakosky, who was a scientific adviser for the Hope mission. “In designing the Hope mission, we wanted to pick areas that were important, yet not really addressed by earlier missions. And our experience with Mars is that every time you make a new type of measurement, you make fundamental discoveries about the behavior of the system.”

For example, Hope will shed light on a Martian mystery uncovered by Maven, which detected large plumes of hydrogen escaping from the planet. The hydrogen likely comes from atmospheric water vapor split apart by sunlight in the lower atmosphere, but the processes that cause it to escape into space aren’t well understood. They’re worth figuring out, though. Geological evidence collected by Martian orbiters and rovers suggests that a younger Mars may have hosted vast oceans of liquid water on its surface around 4 billion years ago. But today the planet is cold, dry, and barren. Studying its atmosphere may tell us how it became this way, and whether conditions were ever conducive to life.

“We know that Mars used to have a much thicker atmosphere, it was warmer, and it was wetter,” says Tanya Harrison, the science programs manager at Planet, an Earth-imaging satellite company, who previously worked on NASA’s Curiosity Mars rover. “The big questions are, how did the atmosphere get to the point it’s at today, and what’s causing it to blow into space?”

The Hope spacecraft may be on a mission to Mars, but its architects also underscore its importance for people back on Earth. The Emiratis and their neighbors are expected to be hit especially hard by climate change; some projections forecast that large swathes of the Middle East will be uninhabitable by the middle of the century due to drought and soaring temperatures. Sharaf says that the skills gained from launching and operating Hope will help Emirati scientists and engineers develop the technical skills they need to deal with climate change on Earth.

“We are in a rough region and have serious challenges here when it comes to water resources and food resources,” says Sharaf. “We need scientists and engineers to address these challenges. That’s why we’re sending this mission to Mars—it’s about the post-oil economy and developing the skills and knowledge that will, sooner or later, come back to Earth. ”

The development of Hope was a uniquely collaborative process, says Al-Amiri. Although the spacecraft is entirely funded and designed by the UAE, its instruments were built in the United States at various universities and the spacecraft was assembled at the University of Colorado, Boulder. But UAE leaders weren’t interested in simply renting US experts as contractors for their spacecraft; they wanted their engineers to be intimately involved and learn from the process. So Sharaf led a team of several Emirati engineers who moved to Colorado to work side-by-side with American scientists.

This is a collaborative model familiar to Al-Amiri and her Emirati colleagues who partnered with South Korea to develop the UAE’s first Earth-observation satellites years ago. But it’s a relatively unique approach among national space programs, which have historically developed spacefaring expertise internally. Al-Amiri says this wasn’t an option for the Mars team, since UAE prime minister Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum wanted the spacecraft’s arrival at Mars to coincide with the country’s 50th anniversary next year. “We knew very early on that we only had a short amount of time,” says Al-Amiri.

Still, going from a Mars mission concept to launch in just six years is a huge ask, and Al-Amiri says it speaks to the talents of the Emirati engineers working on the project, the majority of whom are under age 35. “It’s a relatively young team, but the UAE is a relatively young country, so it’s not odd for us,” says Al-Amiri, who pointed out that most NASA engineers, astronaut candidates, and mission control operators were also in their late twenties and early thirties during the Apollo program. “Having a young team didn’t hinder the process. It was a great learning opportunity, which was the overall objective of this mission.”

The Hope mission will kick off a busy month of Mars launches by space agencies that want to take advantage of the planet’s closest approach to Earth in more than 2 years. Next up is China, which is expected to launch its first dedicated Mars mission, Tianwen-1, between July 20 and 25. This mission will incorporate both a rover and an orbiter that will scout for signs of life in the Martian soil.

Finally, NASA will launch its next-generation Mars rover, Perseverance, on a mission to collect samples that will be returned to Earth later this decade. NASA’s mission is currently scheduled to launch on July 30, but it has been delayed multiple times due to problems discovered during vehicle checkout. The agency has until August 15 to launch, otherwise it will have to wait another two years for Mars to make another close pass. And with any luck, Hope will be there to greet the rover when it arrives.


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A Black man tried to cash his first paycheck. The teller called 911.

By Faith Karimi, CNN

Updated 1051 GMT (1851 HKT) July 2, 2020

Chat with us in Facebook Messenger. Find out what’s happening in the world as it unfolds.

(CNN)Paul McCowns walked into an Ohio bank clutching his first paycheck from a new job at an electric company. But instead of cashing the check worth about $1,000, the teller called 911.

As he walked out of the Huntington Bank branch in Brooklyn empty-handed, an officer waiting outside handcuffed him and put him in the back of a police cruiser.

“I have a customer here — he’s not our customer, actually. He’s trying to cash a check and the check is fraudulent. It does not match our records,” a bank employee says on a recording of the 911 call obtained by CNN.

For many African Americans, what happened to McCowns in December 2018 is a common experience. Banking while Black is another entry in an ever growing list of people calling the police on African Americans doing everyday things.

No data exists on how prevalent the issue is but such cases have made headlines in recent years. Florida civil rights attorney Yechezkel Rodal said he gets calls from Black people all over the nation after his client sued a bank two years ago. Some incidents end in lawsuits or private settlements with the banks — but many more occur in financial institutions big and small with no repercussions, he said.

In McCowns case, while the bank’s staff could not reach his employer to verify the check, he followed protocol and provided two forms of identification and a fingerprint.

    The police finally reached his employer and confirmed the check was valid, and let him go. The bank apologized, saying its tellers were being “hyper-vigilant” after a series of incidents involving fraudulent checks. He later cashed his check at a different Huntington branch with no incidents.

    “It was highly embarrassing,” McCowns said at the time. “The person who made that phone call — that manager, that teller — whoever made that phone call, I feel as though they were judging.”

    A branch manager used a racial slur against him

    Racial profiling in financial institutions happens often, but most people rarely report it or file lawsuits because such cases are difficult to prove, lawyers said. Others just make their deposits or cash their checks and move on.

    But with the growing outcry against systemic racism since the killing of George Floyd, more Black people are sharing their banking experiences. Last month, Florida lawyer and businessman Benndrick Watson filed a lawsuit against Wells Fargo, accusing a bank manager of using a racial slur while he was trying to open an account.

    Watson had a personal checking account at the bank, and was at a branch near Tampa to open a business account for his law firm in April last year. While the banker was searching through corporate records, Watson told CNN, he discovered that he owned a record label business and started asking questions.

    “It’s almost like they didn’t believe I had a business,” he said.

    The teller brought in a branch manager who started going through Watson’s information on his computer. Then the manager suddenly called him a Ner.

    “My jaw just literally dropped — I was scared, I said, ‘did he really say that?'” Watson said. “I sat back. He started talking. He started scaring me. It was hard to explain.”

      The branch manager apologized, saying he did not mean it and describing it as “a slip of the tongue,” Watson said. He quickly gathered his things and rushed to his car.

      “When you go to the bank, your guard is down. You don’t expect to be called a racist word”

      Benndrick Watson

      “When you go to the bank, your guard is down. You don’t expect to be called a racist word,” Watson said. “I was a customer in this bank. I had been to this bank. It physically hurt.”

      Watson said he wants to bring awareness to his case with the hope that it’ll help banks improve their relationships with Black small business owners.

      Shortly after the incident, his attorney Rodal reached out to the bank on behalf of his client. The regional manager wrote a letter to Watson apologizing and describing the incident as unacceptable.

      “Even though it seems the utterance of the offensive term was unintentional, we understand that it made your client uncomfortable, and for good reason,” the regional manager wrote in the letter provided to CNN by Rodal. “Wells Fargo does not tolerate that kind of language, under any circumstances, and we have taken corrective action against the former branch manager.”

      In a statement to CNN, Wells Fargo said the branch manager resigned as the bank was preparing to fire him and is not eligible for rehire.

      “We are very sorry and deeply apologize to him for what must have been a horrible experience,” the statement said. “Wells Fargo does not tolerate discrimination of any kind. We look into all allegations of discrimination regarding our customers and employees very seriously and take action to address them.”

      A teller refused to deposit his check

      Michigan resident Sauntore Thomas recently reached an agreement with a bank over a racial discrimination lawsuit he filed this year after a teller refused to deposit his checks.

        In January, he’d gone to a TCF Bank branch in Livonia to open a savings account and deposit checks from a settlement in a racial discrimination case against his former employer. He had a checking account at the bank.

        A bank employee asked how he got the money, and called the police to report that he was attempting to deposit fraudulent checks, the lawsuit said. Four police officers arrived and questioned him.

        “Something else was afoot here,” his attorney, Deborah Gordon, said at the time. “And in my opinion there’s only one thing: banking while Black.”

        Sauntore went to a different bank, opened an account and deposited his checks without any issues. In a statement to CNN at the time, the bank apologized.

        “Local police should not have been involved. We strongly condemn racism and discrimination of any kind,” it said. “We take extra precautions involving large deposits and requests for cash and in this case, we were unable to validate the checks.”

        Following the filing of the lawsuit, he has since had a meeting with TCF board chairman Gary Torgow.

        “He feels comfortable with their assurances that the incident that occurred was an unfortunate mistake and is not reflective of the way the bank does business,” Gordon told CNN.

        The law makes it difficult to seek redress

        Since Floyd’s killing by a police officer in Minneapolis and demands for justice and corporate accountability, there are growing calls for banks to address racial profiling.

          Racial discrimination has happened at banks for years with limited legal recourse, legal experts said.

          The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination in businesses such as theaters, restaurants and hotels but banks are not on the list, which makes it hard for people profiled in financial institutions to win lawsuits in federal court, according to Gordon, a civil rights attorney.

          “This act was written in the middle of the Civil Rights Movement when African Americans were dealing with being unable to sit at a lunch counter, stay in a motel or go to a movie,” Gordon said. “The 1964 act sought to address only these violations that were very much in the public eye. The act needs to be amended but I doubt that it will be.”

          Some states have passed measures that address the loopholes. In Michigan, a Civil Rights Act passed in 1976 covers most everything, Gordon added.

          Some banks are pledging to make efforts to ensure a welcoming environment for minorities.

          The Civil Rights Act of 1964 outlawed discrimination in some businesses but banks are not on the list

          “As a company based in Minneapolis, we asked questions at the time about how we could help enact changes to the systemic inequities, socially and financially, that have contributed to what was a recurring tragedy,” US Bank Chief Diversity Officer Greg Cunningham said.

          He urged large companies and their leaders to develop meaningful relationships with Black-owned businesses and actively denounce systemic racism.

          Wells Fargo said it’s committed to a series of changes including supporting Black businesses to ensure the company’s diversity and inclusion efforts lead to meaningful change.

          “All managers will be required to participate in a new live and interactive program specifically designed to tackle today’s challenges,” Wells Fargo CEO Charlie Scharf said last month. “This will go well beyond the current standardized training that is inadequate to the challenge.”

          The bank has pledged to use such incidents to train employees and ensure better services.

          “The most useful and valuable approach we can take with each customer interaction and our employees is to learn from them and continue to make sure our policies, processes and training support fairness and equity for every customer or noncustomer we interact with,” it said.

          TCF has rolled out mandatory unconscious bias training for employees and conducted a review of its policies and procedures to ensure equal treatment of all customers, spokeswoman Randi Berris said.

          But as businesses take a hard look at their policies in the wake of Floyd’s killing, some bank leaders admit more work needs to be done to build trust with minorities.

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          US Navy’s first 4 littoral combat ships to leave the fleet in 9 months

          WASHINGTON — The Navy’s first four littoral combat ships will be headed into mothballs next March, according to a June 20 message from the chief of naval operations.

          The littoral combat ships Freedom, Independence, Fort Worth and Coronado will all be inactivated on March 31, 2021, with Coronado being commissioned just six years ago.

          The Navy decided to cut the ships to save money on modernization efforts as it faces a mountain of shipbuilding bills and upgrade costs.

          The ships were supposed to be used as test vessels for the continued standing up of the LCS class, but LCS 1 through 4 have just about reached the end of their usefulness as test vessels and are no longer worth a deeper financial investment, according to a February briefing by Rear Adm. Randy Crites, the deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for budget.

          “Those four test ships were instrumental to wringing out the crewing, the maintenance and all the other things we needed to learn from them,” Crites told reporters. “But they’re not configured like the other LCS in the fleet, and they need significant upgrades. Everything from combat [systems], to structural, you name it. They’re expensive to upgrade.”

          The ships will be put in inactive reserve status, which means they could conceivably be reactivated if needed in a crisis.

          Split between two variants — a line of traditional steel monohull warships and another featuring an aluminum trimaran design — the LCS was intended to serve as a fast and nimble warship, capable of morphing into a minesweeper, anti-submarine vessel or ship killer.

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          But Crites said the first four ships had become less relevant for “great power competition” and that money could be spent on better options.

          “They’ve played an important role and we’ve certainly ramped up our employment [of the LCS],” Crites said. “That’s a good thing. But when we looked at our return on investment and the cost of bringing those ships up to speed, they’re important, but in the context of great power competition they were less important. So we took those savings and applied it to other areas.”

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          'exposed Business First

          First Subjected planetary core discovered allows glimpse inside other worlds

          First exposed planetary core discovered allows glimpse inside other worlds
          Artist’s impression showing a Neptune-sized world in the Neptunian Desert. It’s extremely rare to come across an item of the size and density so close to its star. Credit: University of Warwick/Mark Garlick

          The surviving heart of a gas giant has been found orbiting a distant star by University of Warwick astronomers, providing an unprecedented glimpse into the inside of a world.

          The , which is the same dimension as Neptune in our own solar system, is believed to be a gas giant that was stripped of its gaseous atmosphere or that failed to form one in its own early life.

          The group in the University of Warwick’s Department of Physics reports the discovery today in the journal Nature, and is regarded as the first time that the exposed core of a world has been observed.

          It delivers the exceptional opportunity to peer within the interior of a world and find out about its makeup.

          Located around a star similar to our own approximately 730 off, the heart, termed TOI 849 b orbits so close to its that a year is a mere 18 hours and its surface temperature is around 1800K.

          TOI 849 b has been found in a survey of by NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), using the transit method: observing stars to its tell-tale dip in brightness that indicates that a planet has passed in front of them. It was located in the’Neptunian desert’ – a phrase used by astronomers to get larger or a region near celebrities.

          The object was subsequently analyzed with the HARPS instrument, on a program headed by the University of Warwick, in the European Southern Observatory’s La Silla Observatory in Chile. This utilizes the Doppler effect to assess the mass of exoplanets by measuring their’wobble’ – small movements towards and away from us who enroll as shifts in the spectrum of light of the star.

          The team determined that the object’s mass is 2-3 times higher than Neptune but it’s also incredibly dense, with the substance which makes up that bulk squashed into an object the same size.

          First exposed planetary core discovered
          The red line indicates the evolutionary track of a simulated world that eventually has similar properties as the true planet TOI-849b, as seen from the Bern Model of planet formation and evolution. The trail is shown in the plane of semimajor axis in astronomical units (AU), that is the orbital distance from the star, on the x-axis, along with the radius of the world in units of jovian radii on the y-axis. The blue-red points reveal other planets called by the model. Jupiter and the Earth are shown at their ranks for comparison. The entire world starts to form in the initial period t=0 years. The protoplanet grows in mass in the following 1 million year that increases its radius. In this stage, the planet’s radius is still quite large, as it is embedded in the protoplanetary disk in. The mass of the protoplanet causes it to migrate inwards, towards the star. This reduces the size of the planet. After 3.5 million decades, the planet has migrated to the inner edge of the disk. Additionally, it suffers an extremely lively impact with a different protoplanet in its system. The huge heat liberated in the collision inflates the gaseous envelope of the planet. The envelope is dropped through Roche-lobe escape, and also an exposed planetary core comes into presence. In the billions of years, the vulnerable core slowly spirals towards its host celebrity because of tidal interactions. The simulate world currently has properties like a mass, radius, and orbital distance that are extremely much like the observed properties of TOI-849b that is exhibited by a black-yellow symbol. In the long run, after about 9.5 billion decades, the planet falls into its host star. Charge: © University of Bern

          Lead author Dr. David Armstrong from the University of Warwick Department of Physics said:”While this can be an unusually , it is a very long way in the most gigantic we know. But it is the massive we understand for its size, and dense for something the size has a very odd history. The fact that it’s in a location for its own mass also helps–we don’t see planets with this particular mass in these orbital periods that are short.

          “TOI 849 b is the most massive terrestrial planet–which has an earth like density–discovered. We’d expect a world this massive to have accreted amounts of hydrogen and helium when it formed, growing into something. The simple fact that these gases aren’t seen by us lets us know this is an exposed planetary core.

          “This is the first time that we’ve discovered an intact exposed heart of a gas giant round a celebrity.”

          There are two theories as to why we’re visiting the world’s core, instead of a typical gas giant. The first is that it was like Jupiter but lost almost all its outer gas by means of a variety of methods. These could consist of disruption, where the planet is ripped besides orbiting close to its celebrity, or even a collision. Photoevaporation of this air could play a role, but can’t account.

          Alternatively, it might be a’neglected’ gas giant. The scientists feel that when the gas giant’s heart formed it never formed an atmosphere and then something could have gone wrong. If there was a gap in the disc of dust that the planet formed from, or when it formed 25, this could have happened and the disk ran out of material.

          Dr. Armstrong adds:”One way or another, TOI 849 b either used to be a gas giant or is a’neglected’ gas giant.

          “it is a first, telling us such as this exist and could be found. We’ve got the chance to check at the heart of a planet in a way that we can’t perform in our solar system. There are large questions as an instance, regarding the nature of Jupiter’s core, so unusual and strange exoplanets such as this provide us a window into planet formation that we have no way.

          “Although we don’t have any advice on its chemical composition yet, we could follow this up with different telescopes. Because TOI 849 b is so near the star, any remaining atmosphere around the world has to be constantly replenished from the core. So if we can measure that air then we could find an insight into the makeup of the center itself.”



          More info:
          A remnant planetary heart in the hot-Neptune desert, Character (2020). DOI: 10. 1038/s41586-020-2421-7 , www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2421-7

          Citation:
          First subjected planetary core found allows glimpse inside other worlds (2020, July 1)
          Recovered 1 July 2020
          Out of https://phys.org/news/2020-07-exposed-planetary-core-glimpse-worlds. html

          This record is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
          Part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

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