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Reza Aslan Reveals How CNN’s Jeff Zucker and Trump ‘Canceled’ Him Over a Tweet

Unlike J.K. Rowling or Donald Trump, Reza Aslan knows what it’s like to be “canceled.”

On the evening of June 3, 2017, a van barreled into a crowd of pedestrians on London Bridge before its passengers emerged, stabbing onlookers in nearby Borough Market. Before their blood was even dry, or the culprits’ identities revealed, President Donald Trump tweeted, “We need to be smart, vigilant and tough. We need the courts to give us back our rights. We need the Travel Ban as an extra level of safety!”

That Trump was using an in-progress terrorist attack as justification for his so-called “Muslim Ban,” which he described as “a total and complete shutdown of Muslims entering the United States” during his campaign, did not sit well with Reza Aslan, a leading religious scholar and one of the most prominent Muslim voices in media. So, the CNN pundit and host fired off a tweet: “This piece of shit is not just an embarrassment to America and a stain on the presidency. He’s an embarrassment to humankind.”

He was immediately inundated with emails, texts, and missed calls from producers, CNN execs, and even liberal-celeb acquaintances chastising him for the move. #FireReza and #CNNisISIS began trending on Twitter, as a right-wing mob called for his ouster. At the network’s urging, he issued a diplomatic apology—which they accepted. All seemed fine.

And then four days later, without warning, he received notice that his highly rated travel series, Believer, which saw Aslan immerse himself in different religions (from a Hawaiian death cult to getting audited by Scientologists), had been canceled by CNN honcho Jeff Zucker. The move struck Aslan and his crew as odd given the show’s popularity, his public apology, and the fact they were set to begin shooting Season 2 in days. Most curious of all was how the man who dropped the hammer, Zucker, is a longtime friend of Trump’s who, as president of NBC Entertainment, breathed life into the real estate mogul’s dying empire with The Apprentice.

    Thankfully, Aslan has kept busy since. He hosts a talk show, Rough Draft, which had its first season on Topic; has been helping develop a new Chuck Lorre sitcom, The United States of Al, for CBS; and is “knee-deep” into a book about Howard Baskerville, a Presbyterian missionary who led a volunteer militia during the Constitutional Revolution of Iran in the early 1900s. Oh, and Believer will finally be available to stream on Topic beginning July 16.

    There is certainly no love lost between Aslan and Zucker, and over the course of our lengthy chat, he reveals the whole messy backstory behind Believer’s cancellation—including the CNN chief’s alleged broken promises, “vindictiveness,” and a legal tug of war that drove a stake through the show’s heart. He also has plenty to say about Trump, whom he calls “a lecherous, pussy-grabbing pathological liar who has been credibly accused of rape multiple times.”

    Let’s start with all the hullabaloo surrounding the cancellation of Believer. Could you walk me through the day where you sent your Trump is a “piece of shit” tweet?

    That was the day in which there was the awful terror attack on the bridge in London, in the Thames. It was an attack where somebody who had pledged loyalty to ISIS had run over a bunch of pedestrians on the bridge, and many of them had been flung into the river.

    And then they got out of the van and began stabbing civilians in Borough Market.

    Right. I was following the story as soon as it broke, since this is a topic that I write and talk about a lot. I was in the process of getting my family to go out to dinner that night when I saw Trump’s tweet. Essentially, what he had done was—in the first two minutes of the attack, while the Brits were still fishing bodies out of the Thames, and before any real information was known about the perpetrators or their motives—he used the attack, as he often does, to promote his racist, anti-Muslim agenda, suggesting that this attack is more proof for the “Muslim ban” that he was so desperately trying to enact at the time. When I read that tweet, I was just enraged. I was perfectly aware of who Donald Trump was. I understood that he was a vile bigot and an unrepentant racist, and knew precisely what he felt about Muslims. This is a man—and an administration—who very explicitly said that Islam is not a religion but a political philosophy, and that it is not protected under the First Amendment in the United States because it’s not a religion. I know who this man was.

    But to have the president of the United States, the supposed leader of the free world, use this to stoke anti-Muslim sentiment, and to use it to justify his own race-baiting and xenophobia in the United States, frankly, I just snapped. I don’t remember my exact tweet but it was something along the lines of “this man is a piece of shit and an embarrassment to humanity”—both of which are fundamental facts that I stand by.

    Yes, I believe the exact words were, “This piece of shit is not just an embarrassment to America and a stain on the presidency. He’s an embarrassment to humankind.”

    Exactly. All of which are objective truths borne out by reams of evidence. And I’ll be honest with you: I didn’t think twice about it. I turned off my phone, left it behind, and took my family to dinner. My wife had been giving me a really hard time lately about always having my phone with me and constantly checking the alerts and going through Twitter, so I had been trying to spend more time away from my phone. The other thing I should mention is, this is not the first time that I had referred to the president as a “piece of shit.” I had tweeted that he was a “piece of shit” on at least four other occasions before then. So it was in no way the first time I had called him a “piece of shit,” and I didn’t think anything of it. I came home that night, saw the response, and clearly something had happened. I had voicemails from my agent, from the producers of the show, from CNN execs, from liberal “celebrity” friends on social media saying, “How could you say something like this? You have to respect the office! Even if it’s true, you can’t talk about the president in these terms.” These were liberals and progressives telling me this.

    And the quote that was delivered to me [from Zucker] was, “I have no choice in the matter. I gotta get rid of your boy.” I was flabbergasted.

    How did you respond?

    My first response was to sit down and write a very long statement essentially saying, “I’m not sorry.” In that statement, I outlined all of the despicable, racist things that Trump has said and done. I made the argument that those of us with a voice have to be able to shout as loud as possible, and in as public a way as possible, when we are confronted with someone who is clearly an existential threat not just to American democracy, but to the world as we know it, and that calling him a “piece of shit” was frankly the most polite thing I could say about him. I sent that statement to my small group of representatives and was told in no uncertain terms, especially by my agent and publicist: “Send this thing out and the show is done.”

    I came up with the concept for Believer in my early twenties, had pitched it, sold it, and poured my life into this. I really and truly thought of Believer as the culmination of all the work that I had ever done. My entire adult life had been predicated on teaching people what religion is, showing people what religions have in common, and setting myself up as someone who can explain things that look weird and foreign and scary and exotic, and in doing so, break down these walls that separate us into these religious groups. The threat of that being taken away was enough for me to dispose of the original statement and issue a very short apology.

    Which CNN initially said they accepted.

    Immediately. It was quite clearly, “Yup, it’s over. It’s fine.” That was Sunday. And on Monday, we were back into pre-production. That Friday, we were all supposed to go to the U.K. to film the first episode of the second season. So on Monday, we were back in the office and I apologized to my crew and staff, and said I didn’t want to jeopardize their jobs. The crew was on my side, and that was the end of that. Back to work.

    And then Thursday, which I remember because it happened to be the first day of [James] Comey’s testimony, in the break between the morning testimony and the afternoon testimony, [Jeff] Zucker informed the production company that he was pulling the plug on the show. The response from the production company was, “Wait a minute, what? We thought this was over. He apologized. You accepted the apology. This was four days ago.” And the quote that was delivered to me [from Zucker] was, “I have no choice in the matter. I gotta get rid of your boy.” I was flabbergasted. It just didn’t make sense to accept an apology, wait four days, and then in the middle of one of the biggest news day of the year to just simply cancel it.

    It certainly sounds strange. Why do you think Zucker did that?

    I’ve made a lot of friends at CNN and had a long relationship with CNN as a political commentator, appearing on almost every show. So I had enough friends there who were able to tell me: “Look, it’s a matter of access. It’s an access issue.” The idea was that Trump wouldn’t come on CNN anymore as a result of this. And also, this was at the height of the AT&T merger where Trump was illegally—and publicly—saying that he wasn’t going to allow this merger to happen unless CNN fire Jeff Zucker, because they have this fake “conflict” between them. That week was the week when right-wing sites like Breitbart and The Daily Wire started trying to “cancel” liberal voices. #FireMaddow was a big trending hashtag on Twitter, as was #FireReza.

    Also #CNNisISIS.

    Right. Which tells you a lot about the motivation behind the #FireReza movement. And then they went through every social media post I’d ever made. So they were trying to “cancel” me.

    And this is a time when anti-Muslim sentiment had seen a spike, given the London Bridge terror attack and Trump’s proposed “Muslim ban.” So the timing of this right-wing campaign against you seems rather suspect, to say the least.

    Oh, absolutely. And in June of 2017, I am one of the most prominent Muslim voices in America. And the #CNNisISIS tag is indicative of it, that this was motivated by Trump’s anti-Muslim sentiment. And there wasn’t any coordinated attack on me the first four times I’d called him a “piece of shit” on Twitter. But this time was different. And the Eric Trump thing was outrageous. To have Eric Trump go on Hannity and just flat-out lie, and say I’m a “journalist,” an “anchor sitting behind the desk,” an “employee of CNN,” and that I called him a piece of shit “on-air.” None of those things were true. And I don’t know what happened in those four days. We had packed our bags, had plane tickets, and were 24 hours away from shooting the first episode. And then the call came.

    There wasn’t any coordinated attack on me the first four times I’d called him a “piece of shit” on Twitter. But this time was different. And the Eric Trump thing was outrageous.

    It’s curious, the cancellation, because we do know that Jeff Zucker at the time had a close relationship with Donald Trump, and was one of the people who helped him become Donald Trump. And during the 2016 election, CNN had their cameras trained on an empty microphone for an hour before Trump’s speeches even kicked off, so they gave him a tremendous amount of airtime. They even had a rotating team of pro-Trump pundits, from Jeffrey Lord to Corey Lewandowski (as he was still being paid by the Trump campaign) to the “mazel tov cocktail” lady. So they played a pretty big role in getting this guy elected.

    An intimate relationship. And Donald Trump had helped Zucker become Zucker. And they played a huge role, massive role. What I was made to believe from my friends at CNN was that, since Trump had come out against the AT&T merger, this was another reason for him to try to prevent that merger from happening. The thing that I heard most often, however, was that it just comes down to the simple issue of feeling threatened by the president that somehow CNN would lose access to the White House. OK, but why do you say all is forgiven and then four days later cancel the show? It came as a surprise both to us, and to people at the network. Even the higher-ups at CNN were surprised by this move. We tried to call [Zucker] and get some clarity, and that’s when I was sat down and told that the following came directly from Jeff Zucker. What he basically said was, “Keep your boy in line, stay quiet, don’t do any interviews—this is obviously going to be a big story—don’t comment about this, and in exchange, when this brouhaha dies down, you will get the show, the masters, and the format”—because CNN technically owned not only Believer but the format, by which I mean they owned Reza Aslan goes around the world exploring religions, or my entire livelihood. So I couldn’t go around doing that for anyone else. I was told I could have all of it back if I just stayed quiet. So I had been purposely muzzled—fooled—into keeping my mouth shut. Which I did.

    So you’re saying you were essentially conned by Jeff Zucker into staying quiet.

    “Conned” is the perfect word for it. I was deliberately conned with a false promise: be quiet, you’ll get the show back. And during those couple of weeks, I was getting inundated with requests from other networks. It was a very successful show, but the cancellation of it was such a big issue that there were a number of networks who very much wanted to take advantage of that, and to step in and say, “We picked it up.” And so I would respond to these emails, either directly or through my agent: “Give us a couple of weeks.” So we told the staff: “We know you’re not getting paid for a couple of weeks but just hold on. We’ll go back into production and everyone will get paid again.”

    The first offer came in from CNN, and it was the legal equivalent of “go fuck yourself.” It was, you don’t get the show back; you don’t get the tapes back; you don’t get the format back; we’re not going to pay anyone on your staff; and, despite the fact that you were pay-to-play, meaning the second I signed the contract for that second season my salary was guaranteed, we’re going to negate the pay-to-play and say that you violated a “morality clause”—which, again, when you think about who the president of the United States is, the idea that I violated a “morality clause” in my contract is laughable—and we’re going to cite that to also not pay you. It was a straight-up con.

    It sounds not only ruthless but vindictive, in a way.

    Well, let’s talk about how vindictive it was. He canceled the show on Thursday. On Friday, he made the announcement. Monday was the first day of Emmy voting. And look, I’m not saying I was going to win an Emmy, but there were articles in Variety and Deadline saying we were in the mix. CNN had a robust Emmy plan in place for it—an FYC, or For Your Consideration plan—and there was every reason to think that we were well-positioned for an Emmy nomination. It’s one thing to withdraw that Emmy plan, I get that, but what he did was he scrubbed the show from the CNN archives, so he made it literally impossible for any Emmy voter to actually see the show. It was pure vindictiveness. There’s no explanation for that at all. It was incredible.

    Long story short, it took almost a year to negotiate on the show. When negotiations were over, we ended up getting almost everything he said we would get if we kept our mouths shut—we got the show back, we got the format back. We still didn’t get paid but at least we got the show back. But by design it took so long, and the process was so deliberately dragged out, that by that point any excitement from the networks who wanted to take show in order to make a statement had pretty much died down. And I’d moved on. I’m excited that people will get to watch the show now, because I’m very proud of it, but this was a deliberate plan to make sure the show could not be revived in the aftermath of this controversy.

    And it sounds like it was done to appease one person.

    Unquestionably it was done to appease one person.

      There is all this talk about “cancel culture” right now, when we talk about Trump’s speech and the Harper’s letter decrying “cancel culture”—the latter signed by a bunch of people who have committed plagiarism and other fireable offenses yet haven’t been canceled. To me, the real “cancel culture” doesn’t involve elites but people of color and marginalized voices. It involves anyone who may, say, speak out in favor of Palestine. These elites with giant platforms and followings are not the ones being silenced.

      It’s just another tool to make sure that people in the minority keep their mouths shut. The intersection between how this plays with “cancel culture” and the other aspect of the Trump years, the insistence that we all remain “civil,” is interesting. You can call him a lying, narcissistic, megalomaniacal, racist man but don’t say the word “shit!” Because if you say the word “shit” somehow you’ve lost your ability. And to me, this appeal to “civil dialogue” when you’re a minority sounds like “you should shut the hell up.” That’s what it sounds like to me. And this idea of “respect the office” went out the door shortly after my incident, because that was when Charlottesville happened.

      Another of my gripes with the Harper’s letter is that this was a letter written by gatekeepers complaining about this vague “cancel culture.” And they seem to be upset that we’re not living in the past, where 75 to 100 media gatekeepers controlled the entire narrative, controlled who was “canceled” or not, and could drown out dissent from, say, minority voices. They’re unhappy that discourse has become more diverse and democratic, really, and that their views are being criticized and questioned.

      The idea that they could possibly be held accountable for their work and ideas is something that they have never, ever dealt with before. So the idea that it’s all about “free speech” is absurd. It’s not about free speech—it’s about privilege. That’s what it really is.

      Since the tweet and your firing, has CNN frozen you out? Because I don’t see you making a lot of appearances on the network anymore.

      This was in June 2017, it’s now June 2020—that’s three years, and I have not been on CNN. I wasn’t even on CNN while I was on book tour. But it’s not just CNN. With the exception of a couple of MSNBC appearances while literally on book tour, I’ve been completely cut out of the cable-news commentary. Am I weepy about that? No. What this experience has taught me is that cable news is garbage, and you’re better off avoiding all of it. I don’t watch cable news anymore. And there’s no question I was iced out after all this happened. No question about it at all.

      So this is one of the world’s leading Muslim cable-news commentators being iced out because he upset Trump and Jeff Zucker.

      Exactly. For upsetting a man who is the Islamophobe-in-Chief and who was, at the time, actively engaged in a policy to keep Muslims out of America, and at the time was literally transforming America’s refugee program so that it only allowed Christians in. This man was pushing for me to lose this show, the entire purpose of which was to create religious literacy and religious understanding, and to make sure people thought that no matter how weird or frightening someone’s religion seems to be, it’s actually not that weird and not that unusual, and you actually have more in common with it than you think. This show was the polar opposite of everything that Trump was, and everything that he was trying to do.

      If we compare you to, say, Bill Maher—you’ve been chased off cable news yet Maher has said every Islamophobic thing under the sun, platformed Milo Yiannopoulos, and even used the N-word on his program.

      The Bill Maher thing is astonishing to me. It just shows what we really refuse to talk about when we talk about these issues of “cancel culture” or “free speech” issues. These are just ways of making sure that certain voices that are troublesome and that undermine the system that we live under are silenced—and silenced in the name of “civility,” “free speech,” or “cancel culture.” It’s truly what’s at stake here.

      A CNN spokeswoman issued the following statement to The Daily Beast:

      At the time of Believer’s cancellation, we made it clear to Reza that we did not move forward with the series because of his inappropriate tweet and we parted ways amicably. While we owned the series, Reza’s agreement was with Whalerock, the company that produced it. Once we gave Whalerock the rights and paid what we were responsible for, it was their decision on what to do with the series.

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      reveals Study

      Study reveals scale of habitat loss for endangered birds

      A new study implies that the last remaining habitat for several endangered bird species in Europe might decrease up to 50 per cent within the next century as farmers convert land into more lucrative crops and meet greater demand for products like olive oil and wine.

      Low intensive agricultural techniques made semi-natural agro-steppes that hold significant populations of great bustards, little bustards, lesser kestrels, rollers and other at risk bird species. At the early 2000s many of those sites were designated as Special Protection Areas (SPAs) for bird conservation and also therefore are part of the EU Natura 2000 network of priority areas for conservation.

      Researchers at the University of East Anglia (UEA) and University of Lisbon assessed the effectiveness of Natura 2000, the world’s largest protected area network, in conserving Western Europe’s agro-steppes within a 10-year interval. The regions at Iberia studied hold roughly a third — or 14-15,000 — of the world’s inhabitants of great bustards, Otis tarda.

      Agro-steppes are characterised by the cultivation of cereal at a low-intensity rotating system. These minimal yield farmlands are being transformed thickly to permanent and irrigated crops, which changes the open landscapes that provide resources for significant bird populations.

      Traditional olive groves and vineyards are occasionally used for resting or feeding by good bustards, little bustards or sandgrouses, but the modern variations of them and other durable crops are intensively managed and insufficient for these birds.

      If the present market pressure on agro-steppe habitat conversion is preserved, it may diminish 20 percent by 2050 and 40 percent by 2110. Declines will be more severe if the requirement for goods derived from permanent or irrigated crops continues to increase. For instance, with high need for Mediterranean items such as olive oil and wine, agro-steppes within SPAs may soon be the only areas.

      The findings, published in the journal Biological Conservation, suggest the Natura 2000 network might have helped stop losses of roughly 36,000 hectares of agro-steppe habitat at Iberia. However, of those 21 SPAs — four in Portugal and 17 in Spain — and encompassing areas surveyed agro-steppe area losses occurred across all sites. They were 45 percent lesser within Natura 2000 in comparison to non-protected locations, although Natura 2000 websites still lost over 35,000 hectares of agro-steppe habitat in 10 years — an area which can hold more than 500 good bustards.

      João Gameiro, a PhD student in the Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Environmental Changes (cE3c), University of Lisbon, headed the study, which utilized aerial imagery to classify how agro-steppes have changed from 2004 into 2015. He explained:”The Natura 2000 system is the centrepiece of Europe’s biodiversity conservation strategy, and it has enabled a significant comeback of a very diverse range of birds and mammals, including the fantastic bustard and also the lesser kestrel.

      “But, it is important to think about why losses occurred even inside these secure sites. This will undermine the positive outcomes of previous conservation efforts and, in the present rate of habitat conversion, agro-steppes may be reduced to 50 percent of their present area during the following century.”

      The investigators indicate that weak enforcement of these constraints imposed by the secure area network, inadequate incentives to justify the co-operation of farmers, along with short-term habitat conservation measures, are very likely to affect the achievement of Natura 2000 websites in the protection of other key habitats throughout Europe, especially in human-dominated arenas where conservation could often compete with economical pursuits.

      PhD co-supervisor Dr Aldina Franco, of UEA’s School of Environmental Sciences and Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation, stated:”Although environmental restoration is now a priority and a reality in Europe, we’re still losing important priority habitats for conservation. This analysis highlights insufficiencies which need to be addressed to realize the entire potential of this network, halt biodiversity loss, and fulfill the aims of a new worldwide biodiversity framework soon to be characterized by the UN Convention on Biological Diversity\.

      “It is imperative to create new agricultural strategies and enhance agricultural productivity to feed a growing human population. This should reduce strain into agricultural locations that are new on the conversion of natural habitats.

      “However, at the same time, we should also allocate large regions of land to less intensive agricultural methods where human actions are compatible with the persistence of broader countryside species and provide many different ecosystem services and resilience. Finding this balance is a struggle for humankind.”

      The researchers also warn that the larger farmland conversions outside protected websites may transform the remaining agro-steppes into isolated’islands’ restricted to protected areas, together with low population connectivity. Maintaining connectivity is important also to facilitate dispersal, which can be significant in light of climate change and for population viability.

      They add that in agro-steppes along with other human-dominated landscapes, farmers might have to diversify their economic activities to stay economically viable, a procedure which should be financed by agro-environment financial procedures.

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      -Million-Year-Old Business reveals

      400-million-year-old fish shows new clues to how people obtained teeth

      The story of how vertebrates obtained their teeth is significantly older than researchers realized, new findings show.

      In a newspaper published Thursday in the journal Science, scientists analyzed the teeth of three different ancient armored fish genera, dating back to the Devonian span. Their publication analysis suggests that the evolution of specialized teeth happened much earlier than expected, some 400 million years ago.

      The very first vertebrates were jawless, very similar to the hagfish. While we have this knowledge, there has been little understanding of how when teeth started to evolve — although some previous studies have shown that the Devonian period was important for tooth evolution.

      Teeth were formerly discovered at a group of early armored fish known as arthrodires, which are ancestors of jawed vertebrates. These teeth were considered to be advanced, therefore”it was naturally expected that when any teeth are located in much more primitive jawed vertebrates they would naturally must be comparable to arthrodire teeth or simpler,” explains Valéria Vaškaninová, the study’s first author and a paleontologist at Uppsala University in Sweden.

      However, in an unexpected discovery, Vaškaninová and her staff discovered surprisingly contemporary teeth in fish even more crude than arthrodires — fish called acanthothoracids. The new research uses synchrotron microtomography to capture the dentition, or arrangement of teeth, from three arthrodire-like genera: Radotina, Kosoraspis, also Tlamaspis.

      (A separate 2015 paper originally posited that Radotina developed a tooth plate — but discovery turned out to really be a scalelike dermal bone plate, a characteristic also found in several early vertebrates, such as jawless fish.)

      Sophisticated development — Researchers were not sure precisely when, in the course of development, the initial teeth seemed.

      But it stood to reason that, because arthrodires were considered to be the root of tooth development, the three more crude genera would have more simpler teeth. That turned out not to be the case; the critters instead to possess dentition.

      The teeth on Radotina appear to be accommodated for cutting, whereas those of Kosoraspis and Tlamaspis would work well for different manners of grasping-piercing, Vaškaninová says.

      The dentition suggests a step in evolution between primitive fish and modern fish, which have jaws.

      Skull of a crude jawed vertebrate. Vít Lukáš

      Vaškaninová clarifies that her staff had some thought to what teeth in the common ancestor between cartilaginous fish — sharks, rays, and skates — and rectal fish could look like. However they had noticed that dentition in acanthothoracids.

      “What was exciting about our discovery was that we discovered teeth and dermal jawbones with shared characters from both teams,” Vaškaninová tells Inverse.

      A 400 million year-old tropical world. Jan Sovak

      As it turns out, arthrodire dental plates look very different from contemporary fish branches. Scientists could not figure out how they eventually developed to seem as they do today. The new study on acanthothoracids fills in that gap.

      “Nobody anticipated to find teeth so deep on the shrub and certainly not with such’modern’ personalities,” Vaškaninová states.

      The teeth are more like the dentitions of bony fish — suggesting that bees and shark relatives are more specialized, instead of primitive, in their own tooth arrangement. Acanthothoracids have technical arrangements too, as do humans.

      “So even we, people, can trace our teeth and jawbones directly from the very first jawed vertebrates,” Vaškaninová says.

      Abstract: The dentitions of extant fishes and land vertebrates change in both pattern and type of tooth replacement. It has been contended that the condition likely looks like the nonmarginal, radially organized tooth records an early group of fishes that were armoured, of arthrodires. We used synchrotron microtomography to describe the fossil dentitions of so-called acanthothoracids, the most phylogenetically basal jawed vertebrates with teeth, belonging to the genera Radotina, Kosoraspis, and Tlamaspis (from the Early Devonian of the Czech Republic). Their dentitions differ fundamentally from those of arthrodires; they are marginal, carried by a cheekbone or a string of brief dermal bones along the jaw edges, and teeth are added lingually as is the case in several chondrichthyans (cartilaginous fishes) and also osteichthyans (bony fishes and tetrapods). We suggest these features as ancestral for all vertebrates.

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      Business reveals Study

      Study Shows science behind traditional mezcal-making technique

      mezcal
      Charge: Unsplash/CC0 Public Domain

      Artisanal makers of mezcal have a trustworthy way to tell when the drink has been distilled to the right alcohol level. They search for bubbles and squirt some into a small container. The bubbles burst, if the alcohol content is too high or too low. But if they linger for 30 seconds or so, the alcohol level is perfect and also the mezcal is ready to drink.

      Currently , a new study by a team of fluid dynamics researchers shows the physics behind the trick. Using lab experiments and computer models, the researchers show that a phenomenon known as the Marangoni effect helps mezcal bubbles linger a little longer as soon as the alcohol content is around the sweet spot of 50%. In addition to demonstrating the scientific underpinnings of some thing artisans have understood for centuries, the researchers say the findings show new basic specifics about the lives of bubbles on liquid surfaces.

      The study, a collaboration between researchers at Brown University, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Université p Toulouse and elsewherewas printed on July 3 in the journal Scientific Reports.

      When Roberto Zenit, a professor at Brown’s School of Engineering and the study’s senior author, first discovered about the bubble trick, he said he was instantly intrigued.

      “One of my primary research interests is bubbles and how they behave,” Zenit said. “When one of my students explained that bubbles were significant in making mezcal, and it is a beverage I really enjoy with my friends, it was impossible for me to not investigate how it works.”

      The researchers started by doing experiments to observe how altering the alcohol amount of mezcal changed bubble lifetimes. They added other people and pure alcohol and watered down several samples of mezcal. The tip then reproduced in the laboratory while timing the bubbles. They found that, sure enough, bubble lifetimes dramatically affected. In unaltered samples, the bubbles lasted from 10 to 30 minutes ) In the fortified and samples, the bubbles burst.

      Having revealed that bubbles really can be a gauge of alcohol content, the next step was to determine why.

      To accomplish this, the Zenit and his students began by simplifying the fluidperforming experiments with combinations of just pure water and alcohol. Those experiments showed that, as with bubbles tended to survive longer when the mixture was near 50% water and 50% alcohol. The researchers determined the extra bubble existence was due mostly to viscosity. Bubbles tend to last longer in longer viscous fluids, along with the viscosity of alcohol-water mixes peaks right around 50%.

      Artisans who make mezcal, a standard Mexican spirit, have known for centuries that long-lasting bubbles on the surface of the drink is an indicator that it’s been distilled to the ideal alcohol level. A new study reveals the science behind why this is. In part, it’s to do with what is called the Marangoni effect. Certain chemicals in mezcal cause liquid to convect upward to the membranes of bubbles, which can help them keep them for a longer period. Credit: Zenit Lab / Brown University

      But, the bubbles in the 50-50 alcohol and water combinations still did not survive as long as the ones in mezcal. Zenit and his students realized there must be. They used high-speed video cameras to see the bubbles throughout their lifetimes, to figure out what it was.

      The video revealed something unexpected, Zenit explained. It showed an upward convection of liquid from the of mezcal into the bubble membranes.

      “Ordinarily, gravity is causing the liquid in a bubble movie to drain off, which causes the bubble to burst,” Zenit explained. “But in the mezcal bubbles, there’s this upward convection that’s replenishing the fluid and extending the life span of this bubble.”

      with the assistance of some computer modeling, the researchers decided that a phenomenon known as the Marangoni convection was responsible for this upward movement. The Marangoni effect occurs when fluids flow between regions of various , that’s the attractive force between molecules that creates a film surface of a fluid. Mezcal includes a variety of chemicals that behave as surfactants. As a result often have higher surface tension than the fluid below. That differing surface pressure brings fluid into the bubble.

      By amplifying the present tendency for longer-lasting bubbles in 50% mixtures, the surfactant-driven Marangoni result produces bubbles a reliable indicator of in mezcal.

      Zenit, who hails from Mexico, said it was gratifying to shed new light on this artisanal technique.

      “It’s interesting to work on something that has both scientific value and cultural value that’s part of my background,” he explained. “These people are specialists in what they do. It is great to have the ability to corroborate what they already know and to demonstrate that it has scientific significance beyond just mezcal making.”

      The insights generated from the job could be useful in a variety of industrial processes that involve bubbles, the investigators said. It might also be helpful in research.

      “For instance,” the investigators write,”the life span of surface bubbles can be used as a diagnostic tool to infer the presence of surfactants at a liquid: If the life is larger than that expected of a pure/clean liquid, then the liquid is the most likely polluted.”



      More information:
      G. Rage et al, Bubbles decide the quantity of alcohol in Mezcal, Scientific Reports (2020). DOI: 10. 1038/s41598-020-67286-x

      Citation:
      Study reveals science behind traditional mezcal-making technique (2020, July 7)
      Retrieved 7 July 2020
      Out of https://phys.org/news/2020-07-reveals-science-traditional-mezcal-making-technique. html

      This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of research or private study, no
      Part can be duplicated without the written permission. The information is provided for information purposes only.

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      reveals sporty

      Audi reveals a sporty version of its upcoming electric Q4 SUV

      Audi has introduced theory renderings of a new”Sportback” version of the Q4 E-Tron electric SUV that it debuted a year ago . Meant to serve as a smaller and more affordable choice to the flagship E-Tron, the Q4s are expected to go on sale in 2021 and will begin at around $45,000.

      The Q4 and also the Q4 Sportback are”identical twins” from a technical standpoint, based on Audi. Therefore, the Sportback version will also be powered by parent company Volkswagen’s modular”MEB” platform (an abbreviation of the German term for”modular electrical drive matrix”) which will power a wide range of vehicles across multiple manufacturers. This sets the Q4s aside from the original E-Tron and its variations, which can be powered by an electric drivetrain that is Audi-developed.

      Spec-wisethis usually means the Q4 Sportback will utilize a twin-motor setup which creates a total 225kW of power (about 300 horsepower), with those motors pulling electricity from an 82kWh battery which lasts approximately 450 kilometers (approximately 279 miles) to a full charge.

      http://www.theverge.com/

      The difference comes from the exterior styling of this Q4 Sportback. Its roofline flows from front to back in a method that is uninterrupted\. There’s a more clear racecar-inspired diffuser underneath the hatch door and a competitive rear spoiler. This will make the Sportback more aerodynamically efficient, though trade-offs will come in the form of lost headroom for rear seat passengers and cargo space that is less overall\.

      Audi has now shown off seven electric vehicles which are going to be published at the end of next year. And that’s just one small section of the volley of EVs coming from when news of this Dieselgate scandal broke from the Volkswagen Group, which is not removed. A vehicle such as the Q4 Sportback illustrates the push into the space that is electric of complete Volkswagen will be. In most ways, it’s hardly any different from the theory that Audi first teased which will probably be true when both automobiles are come to market. Volkswagen not only intends to flood the market with its MEB-powered EVs, but the company (and its own brands) will also attempt to sell customers on smaller variations of those electric vehicles.

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      Lindsay reveals

      Lindsay Ell Reveals She Was Raped At Just 13 Years Old On Emotional New Song ‘Make You’ — Listen

      Within her brand-new song,’Make You,’ released on July 7, Lindsay Ell made a dreadful confession about being raped if she was 13 — and the lyrics are absolutely gut-wrenching.

      With just weeks to go before the launch of her new record, Heart TheoryLindsay Ell, 31, dropped a brand new song from the album on July 7. The trail,”Make You,” is her most personal and psychological song to date. On the song, Lindsay reveals she was sexually assaulted as a teenager, and opens for her to overcome in the decades since, about how difficult the situation has been.

      The narrative starts from the very first point of the song, when Lindsay croons,”Thirteen, staring in the mirror, you still seem so innocent but that was gone yesterday.” Other lyrics include,”You’ll feel dirty, you are going to feel guilty for what has been done for you” and”When you’re broken beyond what a broken heart can take, the cracks will heal but you’ll always feel the break, and that is what’s gont force you.” Lindsay purposely chose July 7 as the song’s launch date, since it is World Forgiveness Day.

      lidnsay ell
      Shutterstock

      “Forgiving individuals in our past is a massive thing for any reason,” she admitted to Individuals . “But yourself is so significant. There is an amazing amount of recovery that can happen and it can not happen until you can actually open up that forgiveness for your own heart.” In the meeting, she also revealed that she was raped for another time, when she was 21.

      The first assault was by a guy in her church who had been friends with Lindsay’s family. She was not able to open up to her parents about what happened until she had been 20 years old. The country singer did not go into detail concerning the second episode, but she did acknowledge that it had been”a lot more violent.”

      lindsay ell
      Shutterstock

      In addition to sharing her story, Lindsay has also launched the Make You Movement beneath the Community Foundation of Middle Tennessee. The organization will support”at-risk childhood, domestic abuse and sexual assault survivors.” Proceeds from”Make You” will also go to the Rape, Abuse & Incest National Network.

      “Through healing we reach new heights of honesty and what made us who we are,” Lindsay wrote on Instagram. “Our stories can help create change and hope for other survivors…and we can turn our pain into something great.” Her record Heart Theory, is due out on August 14.

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      reveals Winston

      Jahi Winston Reveals Meek Mill Will ‘Impress A Lot Of’ People With His Acting Skills In ‘Charm City Kings’

      Meek Mill makes his acting debut from the Sundance fave’Charm City Kings.’ HL and Jahi Winston talked together about working together with the rapper, how the movie brings’light’ into some’marginalized and vilified town,’ and more.

      Charm City Kings follows Mouse, played by Jahi Winston, a young man who desperately wants to combine The Midnight Clique, an infamous group of Baltimore dirt bike riders that rule the streets in the summer. Midnight’s leader, Blax (Meek Mill), chooses 14-year old Mouse under his wing, however Mouse soon finds himself torn between the straight-and-narrow along with a future full of rapid money and violence. The film won the U.S. Dramatic Special Jury Prize for Ensemble Acting at the 2020 Sundance Film Festival.

      The movie is set to be released on HBO Max afterwards in 2020. HollywoodLife talked EXCLUSIVELY with Jahi through the BET Awards junket about why he was drawn to the function of Mouse, Meek’s acting skills, and much more. Jahi said that Charm City Kings will be a”great launch pad” for Meek’s acting career. The young celebrity also disclosed his intentions 2021, including making his own work.

      Jahi Winston
      Jahi Winston stars from the film’Charm City Kings.’ (Photographer: Elissa Anderson)

      What stood out about the character of Mouse in Charm City Kings that made you want to be part of the film?

      Jahi Winston: I found a lot of familiarity and commonality with his language and the vernacular in which he spoke. It reminded me a lot of my naive although strong-willed family members and parts of myself I actually saw in him. Just the environment in which he existed \was really appealing to me. To sort of attraction light and plenty of humanization to a really marginalized and vilified town was overall… farther down the line realizing that was the opportunity at hand to deliver a different perspective to this often times quite misinterpreted and under-represented surroundings was really the most attractive and attractive thing about the story generally.

      What is it like working with Meek Mill?

      Jahi Winston: I’m very excited for people to watch Meek from the film because I think he’s going to impress a lot of people. The components and topics we’re kind of researching in this narrative that is particular are \close to him and really close to his real life. I believe it is a representation of this bicycle culture and him being such a huge part of it and everything is I think is going to be someone to cool for people to view. For him to show his skills are going to be cool. I know he wishes to continue to behave, so I believe it is going to be a launching pad for his profession. I sort of equate it to seeing Ice Cube at Boyz n the Hood. I feel that’s going to be the instant connection people make because the story is really close to his actual life, and also just because he brings a very vital element of authenticity to the story as a whole. It was amazing to use him.

      You’re a singer as well. Can Meek and you talk about working? Would you need to?

      Jahi Winston: For sure! I love Meek, and that I love the music of Meek. I listen to his music all the time. Then I’m up to it, if he is up to it. Why not?

      Jahi Winston
      Jahi Winston also starred at the 2019 film’Queen & Slim.’ (Photographer: Elissa Anderson)

      As you choose your roles so wisely, where would you prefer to view yourself in 2021?

      Jahi Winston: I’d say, hopefully, the world is back open again. I’d love to observe that. But I’d also, for the likes of my career, I’d like to make my work. Next year is the year that I think will be the year I will be in production having something that will be mine\. The jobs that I am working on are excellent but they are not mine. I give myself to them, therefore I am really interested in committing myself to my work and controlling the narrative and being the victor of my own stories. I am in creation of something I birthed and have created and conceived. All of that is the goal, next year.

      Did you need to learn how to use a dirt bike for the role? If so, what was the process like?

      Jahi Winston: I did it, but there is a lot of movie magic so much as that’s concerned. I don’t know and didn’t understand, however, I had the best seat in the house\. It is and I say this in all seriousness, seeing these kids in the neighborhood ride these dope bicycles and their bicycles, it is an art. They’re like a classical musician or ballerinas at Carnegie Hall. It’s incredible to watch the kinds of things that they can do. These neighborhoods and these marginalized and often vilified communities home and maintain the human beings with intuition and the greatest potential for genius. It was great to have a front-row seat to this, and it had been evident about the shoot and while we were shooting \. They’re \comfortable and so unabashedly themselves so it was amazing to watch that and become a part of bringing that culture and narrative .

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      Business reveals Study

      Study Shows secret life of lithium in Sun-like stars

      Study reveals secret life of lithium in sun-like stars: Created not just destroyed
      This Hubble Space Telescope image shows stars at different stages of their lives, from youthful blue-hot stars to warmer giants. Our study focused on the lithium content of red giant stars Credit: NASA, ESA, and T. Brown (STScI)

      Lithium is becoming common in our daily lives. It’s the important ingredient from the batteries of vehicles and our mobile phones, but have you ever wondered where it comes from?

      A new study headed by Prof. Zhao Gang and Dr. Yerra Bharat Kumar from National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) gives a new comprehension of both how consists of, and the way it’s destroyed.

      The analysis was first published in Nature Astronomy on July 6.

      Researchers studied the lithium content of hundreds of thousands of Sun-like stars to understand how this component changes over time in celebrities.

      “Lithium is quite a special component,” explained Dr. Yerra Bharat Kumar, first author of the study. “Our study challenges the concept that stars like the Sun only destroy lithium through their own lives.”

      “Our observations show that they really create it later in their own lives, after they’ve swelled to become red giants. This means that the Sun itself will even manufacture lithium later on,” he explained.

      Lithium is one of the three components produced from the Big Bang. It has destroyed easily in which it is too hot for it to survive, therefore lithium content usually decreases as the stars era.

      Since lithium is this a sensitive element, it is very useful for understanding celebrities. It functions as a tracer for what is occurring inside stars.

      To understand this sensitive component, researchers used data from a huge Chinese leading spectroscopic survey depending on the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST). The survey is now constructing a database of ten thousand stars’ spectra.

      This research also used data from Australian celebrity survey called GALAH.

      “By taking a look at starlight, we can ascertain what the celebrities are made of,” said Dr. Yerra Bharat Kumar. “Models show that our existing theories about how stars evolve do not predict this lithium generation in any way. Therefore, the research has made a tension between theory and observations.”

      “Our findings will help us to understand and version Sun-like celebrities,” said Prof. Zhao Gang, the co-corresponding author of the study.

      “Considering that the newly created lithium will wind up being ignored the star in stellar winds, it will also help us understand how these contribute to the lithium content of our Galaxy, and to planets such as Earth,” said Prof. Zhao.



      More info:
      Yerra Bharat Kumar et al, Discovery of ubiquitous lithium production in low-mass celebrities, Nature Astronomy (2020). DOI: 10. 1038/s41550-020-1139-7

      Citation:
      Study shows secret existence of lithium at Sun-like celebrities (2020, July 6)
      Recovered 7 July 2020
      From https://phys.org/news/2020-07-reveals-secret-life-lithium-sun-like. html

      This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no
      Part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

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      reveals Trump

      Trump reveals his 2020 campaign strategy

      Julian Zelizer, a CNN political analyst, is currently a professor of history and public affairs at Princeton University and author of the forthcoming book,”Burning Down the House: Newt Gingrich, the Fall of a Speaker, and the growth of the New Republican Party.” Follow him on Twitter: @julianzelizer. The views expressed in this commentary are his own. View longer opinion in CNN.

      (CNN)Friday night in South Dakota, President Donald Trump made his July 4th weekend address all about the monuments. Standing before the presidents carved into Mount Rushmore, Trump railed against the”radical attack” on the American way of life he says is coming out of the left. His opponents have undertaken, he explained, a”merciless effort to wipe out our history, defame our heroes, divert our values, and indoctrinate our kids.”

      Julian Zelizer

      The argument itself carries very little weight. If he thinks that critically engaging in the intricate realities of our nation’s past is an act of wiping out our background, trump is wrong. It’s the men and women who deny that racism is embedded within the development that are wiping our background off of our democracy.

        To appreciate this nation, and to understand it, means grappling with the principles of our former leaders, our policies and our culture. President Abraham Lincoln, who saw the nation literally torn apart from the establishment of slavery, are the first to acknowledge the need to reckon with our national failures (incidentally, his impact on this nation is also under scrutiny given his damaging policies toward Native Americans).

        There is a reason President Trump is focusing on the controversy surrounding monuments of significant historical figures who supported slavery or racism. It is his effort to utilize the culture wars as a means of beating the bread-and-butter demands of middle-class Americans and the gap which exists between the economic policies of his administration.

        Since Ronald Reagan, Republican presidents have had to reconcile their own financial policies — which mostly benefit businesses and the wealthy — with the growing populist rhetoric their base responds to.

        Why Biden has what it takes to beat Trump

        In their new book, “Let Them Eat Tweets,” political scientists Jacob Hacker and Paul Pierson astutely chronicle the ways that the GOP has attempted to navigate this fundamental contradiction. When some conservatives in other countries have moved toward the middle in a conciliatory fashion and agreed to increase taxation to support a social safety net, the GOP has flouted this strategy in favor of dividing the electorate through incendiary social rhetoric to rally fans who may otherwise locate the economic policies of the Democrats more attractive.

        President Trump has mastered this political strategy. Since taking office, he has not pushed for several policies directed at improving the circumstances of middle-class Americans who are struggling. His recipe of supply-side tax cuts and deregulation proceeds a decades-long trend which has helped fuel economic branch and middle-class insecurity.

        His response to the pandemic has also placed millions of Americans in peril. By dismissing public health experts, throwing his weight behind swift re-openings, mocking using face masks and downplaying the need for social distancing, we’re now facing a spike in Covid-19 instances and staring down the very real possibility of another national lockdown.

          The long-term financial effects would be devastating. The companies that survived the first round may not make it through a different shutdown. And then there are the frontline employees who are forced to keep on working in conditions that are hazardous. Many of the children, who need education for economic progress, could fall behind if colleges do not reopen in the autumn\. If the President had taken active steps to include the coronavirus and handled a slow and cautious reopening, we might have joined the list of nations that are currently on the path to economic recovery.

          Stoking the monuments controversy is the latest polemic rhetoric by a President whose economic policies are failing middle and working class Americans. In doing this, President Trump has revealed his 2020 campaign strategy: He’ll do whatever he could to exploit cultural tensions in an attempt to overcome the fact that many Americans would reply Reagan’s famous question,”Are you better off than you were four years back?” Using a resounding”no.”

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          Business Quantum reveals

          LIGO Shows quantum correlations at work in mirrors weighing tens of kilograms


          LIGO mirrors
          Substantial quantum objects: 2 of LIGO’s mirrors, every weighing 40 kg. (Courtesy: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab)

          Physicists working on the LIGO gravitational-wave observatory at the US have proven that quantum-scale correlations can leave their mark on macroscopic items weighing tens of kilograms. The team explored the interplay between the laser beam and its own test legends that were enormous of the interferometer, revealing that the quantum noise of the instrument may be reduced under an intrinsic limit. This, they say, could boost the rate of discoveries with such observatories.

          Gravitational waves are light-speed disturbances in space-time that are generated by massive objects quickening somewhere in distance. They may be observed by monitoring the interference between two laser beams propagating at angles to one another, given that the waves’ passing through the Earth lengthens the course of a single beam very slightly compared to the other.

          The significance of these instruments is limited by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, which stipulates a minimum combined uncertainty in an object’s position and momentum. The laser beams of a observatory each must bounce many times involving a set of mirrors that are suspended until they meet and interfere to have sufficient sensitivity to detect the distance changes caused by a passing gravitational wave. However, as they bounce off them the photons exert pressure on the mirrors and the laser path-length to shift marginally. “The light measures position nonetheless disturbs momentum, thus imposing the Heisenberg limit,” says LIGO group member Lee McCuller of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

          Standard quantum limit

          In training, the interferometer’s sensitivity has a minimal determined by the discrete, random nature of this and another quantum-mechanical process — that the arrival time of photons at the photoelectric sensor. As the quantum limit was called by a trade-off between the instability in these two amounts, Typically stems. If there’s a correlation between those doubts, which are known as quantum radiation pressure noise and shot noise that limit can in theory be beaten.

          The latest job provides the first experimental proof that the standard quantum limit could be defeated in a gravitational-wave observatory. The research was carried out by Haocun Yu, McCuller and other members of the LIGO alliance on one half of the LIGO observatory — a set of 4 km-long interferometer arms located in Livingston, Louisiana.

          To make their measurements, Yu and colleagues used the interferometer in two different modes. In the laser light has been subject to ever-present vacuum changes that produce uncertainties in measurements of its period and amplitude — giving rise to radiation sound and shot noise. But at the mode those vacuum fluctuations were natural, and on average the two sources of noise were large. In the second, in contrast, the changes were manipulated so that one noise source was curbed while another expanded — producing a”squeezed” vacuum condition.

          Classical noise

          With five hours’ worth of data gathered last year, the researchers measured the version from the uncertainty of the interferometer’s space measurement over a range of frequencies in the output . To deduce the sensor’s total quantum sound, they subtracted from the supply. They then compared the resultant information against model predictions.

          Reporting its results in Nature, the LIGO team states its work marks two major milestones in quantum dimension. One, it says, is having directly observed that radiation sound contributes to the movement of the interferometer’s mirrors — all which weighs 40 kg. This, they write, indicates that an effect brought about by Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle”persists even at human scales”.

          The team’s next key finding is having revealed when using squeezed vacuum conditions the resulting quantum noise does indeed drop under the standard limit at frequencies between about 30-50 Hz. They say, proves the existence of quantum correlations between the cushions and the laser beam.

          Room temperature effect

          Writing a comment piece to follow the paper, Valeria Sequino of the University of Naples and Mateusz Bawaj of the University of Perugia in Italy point out that the LIGO team isn’t the first to have decreased quantum noise below the conventional limitation. However they notice that much past work, which didn’t involve gravitational-wave observatories, required cryogenic conditions to reduce thermal sound. 1 remarkable aspect of the latest study, they say, is the fact.

          Sequino and Bawaj additionally point out that LIGO and the Virgo observatory in Italy already use squeezed vacuum conditions to enhance the sensitivity of the interferometers at elevated frequencies. But in an email to Physics Worldthey describe that the quantum correlations present a”frequency dependent squeezing”. This suppresses the noise source that creates the largest problem in a certain area of the spectrum — significance stage sound above 100::Hz and amplitude noise below it. And they add that since this squeezing simultaneously boosts the type of noise in every region, the uncertainty principle remains intact.

          However, they stress that this improvement in broadband detection has not yet been achieved — imagining that the LIGO group acquired its own result by”an applications subtraction of classical sound”. Reducing this noise in practice will require further work, they state.

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